Management of Obesity
Fight Obesity for Healthy Life
RS AL Dr MIntohardjo / Klinik Spesialis Gracia Patricia Jakarta
“Appetite is governed by our thoughts, but hunger is governed by the body.”
Clement G. Martin, Low Blood Sugar: The Hidden Menace of Hypoglycemia
The incidence of obesity in developed countries is increasing at an alarming rate. Obesity is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic diseases, based on chronic inflammation and oxidative stress
An international committee considers a weight reduction of 5-10% of the initial body weight as adequate to reduce the risk of developing diabetes by 58% and diminishes the overall risk of mortality by 20%. The Institute of Medicine defined long-term success as an achieved body weight at least 5% below the initial weight or BMI at least one unit below the baseline BMI 1 year after weight reduction
Successful weight maintenance after weight reduction is the greatest challenge in the therapy of obesity. White adipose tissue is recognized as an active endocrine tissue that secretes immune-modulatory factors which significantly involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. To significantly reduce the metabolic risk associated with endocrine active adipose tissue, it is necessary to reduce and maintain weight over a period of 3 years
Our system of energy balance evolved to ensure that a healthy person maintained adequate reserves of body fat to sustain life through repeated times of food scarcity, including famine. Food energy abundance is a relatively recent phenomenon; body weight maintenance is achieved by complex interaction of neurological and hormonal factors, with the goal of increasing appetite and preserving body fat when energy stores are low. Eating outside of the home can encourage overconsumption, especially of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Spending on food away from home has almost doubled in the last half century, rising to almost one-third of a person’s calories in the United States (Cohen 2012). Half of Americans eat out 2 or more times per week, and 20% of males and 10% of females eat commercially prepared foods 6 or more times per week (Kant 2004).
People have a decreased ability to make healthy food choices away from home; therefore, they depend on automatic choices when hungry. When glucose levels are low, they tend to make less healthy food choices. Lacking of effective treatment options, meal replacement diet plans represent a viable strategy for controlling weight and positively impacting health outcomes Dietary interventions utilizing meal replacements result in greater weight loss, better compliance, more adequate intake of essential nutrients, higher satisfaction and lower drop-out rates compared to other diets
The meal replacement program compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet is more effective in producing robust initial weight loss and improving parameters during weight maintenance such as inflammation and oxidative stress, two key factors more recently shown to underlie our most common chronic diseases.
Researches demonstrate the safety and efficacy of meal replacements for weight loss and weight maintenance among overweight and obese individuals. A standardized, meal replacement-based weight loss program can achieve clinically relevant initial weight loss and weight maintenance over a period of 36 months.
Hypocaloric meal replacement diet plans may be an effective strategy for fostering weight loss, ensuring compliance, and improving health outcomes in today's obesigenic environment